he goes to washington and he tsra six feet tall. he strives the front of the line when they go to the white house to see president kennedy and when kennedy finishes his speech bill clinton goes forward and gets his picture taken alongside at of kennedy. he is so proud, he is so proud and he is already dedicated to the idea that he is going to be the person who will bring complete honor to the family. prd by the age of 17 is planning to be elected attorney general of arkansas and governor of arkansas and then president of the united states. this is something which everyone you knows him knows about because he talks about it all the time.
he goes to georgetown and from georgetown he becomes a candidate for a rhodes fellowship and goes to -- he cannot have a sustained ongoing relationship with a woman. he is attracted to the kind of women his mother directs him to gore the beauty queens, who are the ones who are flirtatious and who are attractive and that is really where his eyes had been. and tell the goes to yale law school. there he meets hillary rodham. >> you can watch this and other programs on line at booktv.org. now on booktv, nicole eustace examines the effects the war of 1812 had on american politics and patriotism. the author reports at the end of the three year war resulted in the quote era of good feelings marked by defuse partisanship and greater nationalism. it's a little over an hour.
[applause] >> thank you very much for that introduction and thank you to the david library for hosting me. to real it's a real pleasure to be here and to see all of you this afternoon. thank you. the title of my talk this afternoon is love and honor in 1812, patriotism and popular culture in the new united states. on june 19 of 1812, james madison made a public announcement of the first war ever to be declared in the history of the united states. he said quote, i extort all the good people of the united states as they love their country, as the feel wrong that they exert themselves. madisons call made clear that the expectations of showing love of country required giving
support. at a moment of national crisis, patriotism was needed. he sought to justify the complex for the population at large and motivate the country to support the war. the stakes were high. because although a majority in congress had voted in favor of declaring war, not one single member of the federalist party had voted in support of the war. northeastern federalist took a very skeptical view of the war, far more so than the southern and western members of the democratic republican party that madison was leading. ostensibly a conflict with britain over national sovereignty the american war of 1812 very quickly became instead a test or a condition, test of the strength and meaning of american patriotism. now we often tend to forget about the war of 1812.
it's easy to lose track of it between the glory of the revolutionary independence movement and the really transformative carnage of the civil war, but the war of 1812 does enjoy a certain dubious distinction of its own, and that is that it was the first war ever to be formerly declared in a modern democracy. in a democracy, public opinion matters. politicians gained and maintained power through the approval of the populace. so in strict military and diplomatic terms, the war of 1812 may not have accomplished very much. been in 1815 the british had burned washington d.c. to the ground. the national debt had nearly tripled from 45 million to 127 million all of the united states had accomplished was getting the british to maintain the status quo, that is to keep
all matters of diplomatic -- exactly the same status they had before the war. all territorial boundaries, all trade questions, everything was going to just stay exactly the same. yet somehow, the population at large regarded this war with favor. the world was seen as sort of a popular referendum in the presidential election of 1812 and 1816. madison easily won re-election in november of 1812 in the early months of the war and his hand-picked successor and former secretary of war, james monroe, enjoyed landslide success four years later. hundreds of thousands of men cast votes for the democratic republican party in those contests. the war in other words, prove to be a popular success. how did people come to form their opinions about this war?
well, usually not through direct observation. far many more people in the united states read and wrote about the war of 1812 then fought in it. i will just give you some numbers to give you a sense of it. the nation long 2260 men in the battle of the war of 1812. that was less than 1/2 of 1% of all servicemen. many who served served in local militias and had a service that was more ceremonial than actual. by contrast, 617,000 combatants died in the civil war, just to give you a sense of the difference in scale that we are talking about. statistics like these hands that the meaning of the war of 1812 can be found as much to popular prints in newspapers, books and ballots telling about the war as
it can be found in the battlefields themselves. contrast those numbers of servicemen with members on newspapers. between 1812 and 1815, the nation presses produced approximately 250 different newspaper titles from the south carolina gazette to the kentucky telegraph to the massachusetts weekly messenger. that's about one newspaper franchise for every 10 men who died in battle. we are not talking about you know, how many volumes of newspapers were published weekly or monthly in that period and how many issues of these volumes. we are talking about how many actual different newspaper franchises there were. quite a few. so if we truly want to assess the impact and importance up the war of 1812, we need to alley-oop they -- evaluated as a cultural event as much as a
military one. now in 1812, americans took instructions about patriotism from a flood of popular praise, a washing discussion about national love. from political speeches like madison to tavern ballots and folk songs, to popular novels and plays. americans on every side of the work question proved eager to talk about love of country. a war that might easily have been dismissed as a terrific waste of time and money if not lord as a disastrous play of hubris. instead, what one newspaper famously described as an era of good feelings. as madisons claim on those who loved their country and made clear, emotion became central to the war's appraisal. everything would be contemplated through the lens of patriotic love. now throughout the war of 1812,
popular conclusions about the meaning of the fence were liable to be based more on the emotional language used to describe them than on rational appraisal of what had occurred. whereas europeans continue to declare that their love of country grew out of a childlike devotion to father kings and where is american and french sons of liberty had five revolutions against monarchs from what they called motives of brotherly love. americans in 1812 emphasize that from their patriotism grew another brady of familiar protection, the romantic love between courting couples. consider for example the songsters who raise their voices and chorus in corristan a ballots called the love of country. it appeared in a publication called the national songbook in 1813. the lyrics explained, a soldier, his honors his life and he that
won't stand to his post will never stand by his wife. since love and honor are the same, or are so near a light that neither can exist alone but forage side-by-side. then farewell sweethearts bear pretty girls to do and we drove the -- we will kick it out in. said there you have the title of my talk, love and honor. with that promise at lebanon are the same. men and women alike were told that there was a fundamental connection between romantic attachment and national loyalty. lovers make the best soldiers and vice versa, soldiers made the best lovers. in the era the war of 1812, war stories and love stories were seriously intertwined. so much so to us it was humorous but the links between war and romance were literal as well as
figurative. the patriotism we might today jokingly some of his love, marriage and a baby carriage had a practical effect and that was to foster the population expansion. high rates of marriage and reproduction resulted in the exponential growth of the american population and has had significant implications for the nation's success in the military contests, not only with the british but also with native americans. in an age when starting a family usually meant clearing a farm, enhancements to societies population and expansion of the territory of the nation went hand-in-hand. in fact, although the united states won no change in the british policy as a result of the war, the country did gain undisputed control of western land that had once been claimed by indians. these were lands that were previously settled by whites and
cultivated insubstantial parts by men and women. now what this means is that all members of the nation's populace, no matter their civic status, no matter whether they could vote for against the president, could assist in the process of settling and thereby securing the nation's land. with no casual choice of words then when madison did not call on all the nations as citizens to support their country. instead, he called far more broadly to quote all the good people of the united states, as they love their country to exert themselves. those loving people included the nation's entire population, male or female, slaves are free, excluding only the indian inhabitants of the continent who continued to struggle for their own sovereignty. now what i would like to do in a time that we have together today is to try to bring to life for
you the power of this rhetoric of romantic patriotism by presenting two contrasting episodes of the war. one, a general who disdains the worth of emotional rhetoric only to suffer military catastrophe and personal loss. the other who embraced patriotism and in the process became the most celebrated military leader of the war of 1812 and a future american president. i'm referring as you know doubt have guessed, to the opening drum of the conflict when general william hope fails in the conquest and to the wars at the conclusion. when general andrew jackson achieved this spectacular triumph in new orleans. as we will see the language of love proves pivotal to the public's narration of these events. win or lose, americans found their imagination captured
whenever battle sagas were replayed as love stories. no matter how dire the events of the day, pro-war commentators could always be counted on to put a romantic gloss on public adaption. the war of 1812 provided an ideal moment for americans from anonymous unknowns like the author of that soldier sally to leading nationalist to mold the meaning of love of country. war supporters worked to portray the conflict is a romantic adventure, one in which dashing young men went to war and won the hearts of patriotic maidens, and one in which the thrill of romantic love contributed directly to the low of victory. now before i take you on an unconventional chronology of the war i do want to first pause to take a careful look at contemporary theory of political economy. you are going to have to bear with me for 10 minutes or so and i promise we will get back to
soldiers but we can appreciate the real significance of this rhetoric of romantic patriotism in less wafers get a good grasp on the serious scientific thinking that lay behind it. informal theory, freedom to love, marry and reproduce, became essential elements of both american liberty and american power. now americans in the era of 1812 were themselves actually very well-versed in population theory. regular methodical government accounts for all the inhabitants meant that even average people had access to basic facts that they nation's population strengths. from the time of the first national census in 1792 the second which was in 1800, the nation's numbers expanded them approximately 3.9 million, to about 5.3 million they continued rising sharply, reaching 7.2 million by the third
official census in 1810. so in total, the nation's numbers increased nearly twofold in just two decades. these official figures were reported widely in regional and local newspapers as soon as the returns came in. complete census reports were printed, sometimes in a commemorative edition of county-by-county compilations and made available for public purchase. census numbers were featured in most standard almanacs, just the kind of basic information that even ordinary farm folks wanted to have at their fingertips. so there was a lot of attention paid to population a lot of national pride based on the growth of the nation's numbers. but despite the satisfaction that americans took in a robust population, the nation's strength in numbers left them vulnerable. throughout the first quarter century of u.s. independence,
written and americans had chafed each other about the population, its regulation, its limitation. even as white americans claim to meet enslaved africans and african-americans, the people they labored for that covered indian land to support ever-growing numbers of the nation's people. the british interfered with then criticized u.s. lanes on both counts. on the continent, the british continue to cultivate diplomatic and economic ties -- ties with native american supporting the rival population for whom the united states perceived the greatest stress. on the ocean britain controlled atlantic shipping for bidding the atlantic slave trade after 18 seven and harassing the u.s. merchants. meanwhile, britain's traditional goal of population limitation, because usually the british thought on their small biothat they had too many people but the royal navy needed every hand he they could find on deck.
the british practice supporting american ships to round up back the bond british seamen provoked enormous controversy. those efforts could at times sweep americans into british nets. in the midst of moral and political confusion both americans and the british made scattershot efforts to remain the better claim to virtue. the rising crisis in the early years of the 1800's compounded every element of the promise and the problems of population in the united states. americans faced an a special importance of intellectual academic adversary in the form of the british theorist thomas -- he was an author of a book you probably heard of, an essay on the principles of population. you may not know the subtitle. it was an inquiry into our prospects respecting the future
removal or mitigation of the evil that it occasions. is first published in england in 1798 and it was reprinted in the united states with a local edition by 18 three. yaffer his model not as mere scientific abstraction but rather as a concrete analysis of american geopolitics. viewing overpopulation is the main cause of famine and suffering melvin who was an anglican clergyman censured unrestrained reproduction is one of the main moral evils. he argued that the best way to restrict runaway population growth was for young men and women to delay marriage. that way, they spend a few more years celibate in a single state base for they started raising families and that would reduce the final number of children to any geek given married couple
and diminish the overall average size of families in the country. the chief object of melvin's analysis was the rapidly expanding united states. taking a hard look at u.s. ambition to assert ever greater control over the continent of north america malcolm included quote, if america continues increasing, chad which she will certainly do, the indian will be driven further and further back into the country until the whole races ultimately exterminated. how could the united states claim to be the quote strongest defender freedom when it denied the basic rights of survival to native americans for tax malcolm declared quote the right of exterminating or trying to -- where they must starve even the inhabitants of thinly peopled regions would be questioned and immoral the. all of us have good reason to be alarmed at the u.s. population
rate since the nation's number have been increasing at such an remarkable pace. with no european rival to contend with, nothing stood in the way at the doubling of u.s. lands in every doubling of the u.s. population except for thousands of indians who continued to live on their native ground. the united states thus provided a perfect object lesson for claims that x. is population fueled territorial aggression. in what i need your any euro american size of virtuous cycle that many native americans and their british allies sophomores a vicious circle, the continent's wide-open grounds supported demographic expansion even as the increasing u.s. population in a bold seizure and settlement of these lands. the resulting dif urchins in british versus american attitude towards american populations significantly increased tensions between the two nations on the end of the war and if that president thomas jefferson who
was the architect of doubling of the nations louisiana purchase had the objection directly in mind the moment he engineered that purchase. the u.s. formal possession of the regions on december 30 of 18 3 exactly one month later on february 1, 18 four, jefferson wrote a letter in which he confessed to quote giving the leisure moments to the perusal of malcolm's work on population. though careful to acknowledge that his work was one indeed of sound projects jefferson insisted that the englishman's theories could not be applied. jefferson concluded to the contrary, that in america quote the immense extent of uncultivated and fertile land enabled everyone who would labor to marry young.
in jefferson's america you can marry young and you can raise a family of any size quote unquote. if malcolm claims america's burgeoning population supports territorial expansion jefferson and burr did the logic. he asserted that the virtually limitless availability of american land of assured for practical purposes there could be so no such thing as excess population. jefferson reassured however -- become effective. and jefferson survey of the situation the right to love, marriage and to reproduce were fundamental liberties enjoyed in america and in his survey of the situation it was overlooked altogether. like his predecessor in office, president james madison preferred to celebrate american population restraint. pergola to present share the perspective of their mutual wartime correspondence. peer samuel dupont.
he stressed that freedom of circulation required not only untraveled tray but also unrestrained reproduction. >> jefferson wrote at the wars and in 1815, his quote hope for his country would be that when the british vanquished americans would at." be permitted to proceed peaceably in making children. now despite the fiction that laid the base that quote making children could be a wholly peaceable process the official republican view that population was essential to american national strength became one of the most enduring legacies. by the time the u.s. kurdish tensions reached the breaking point in 1812 americans reveled in the connection between population strength in territorial spread that malcolm regarded the contrary as a source of evil.
furthermore, americans argue that romantic love encouraged exactly the opposite of the tyranny and aggression predicted via malcolm. on the contrary, they claimed that true political liberty required unlimited emotional freedom and the most exalted emotion was romantic love. as a virginia plantation owner and american political theorist john taylor explained it, malcolm was quote in favor of resorting to law were suppressing love. he explain quote, in english system, one must devote one part of the community to death by famine or else the necessity of living half of their lives without affection. according to taylor and ben was offering its people a start choice between mass starvation on the one hand or marital --
population private chen on the other. taylor went so far as to use it as a means of justifying slavery. he tasked him with a moral slavery on his followers that was worse than any kind of legal slavery. if malcolm quote proposes a statistical celibacy who could fail to notice the difference between indirect slavery to an absolute master and direct slavery to an absolute master? in taylor's america, even though subjected to quote direct slavery to an absolute master, retains the right to reproduce. in taylor's america then, no matter all the other freedoms or were tonight to enslave people including the right to legal marriage and indeed to own their own children, they nevertheless had rights to reproduce that
were in danger in office's. usa work at those african-american head greater basic liberties than supposedly freeborn in britain meanwhile white americans enjoyed natural rights to love and marriage that were impossible to imagine in the france in english i. it was the key arena where these ideas were scratch, where public and private intersected, where personal behavior could be brought with political meaning. he has wide exposure in american popular culture. there were local american reprints of his book. there were long excerpts of his work in newspapers and oftentimes and critical commentary reading against him and casual comments were very common in books. obviously i don't have time to go into the details here but there is one i think funny and memorable american maxim that we
can stand in for the general popular reaction. and authored by author by the name of mason -- make you may remember him as a popular biography of george washington purpose of time he was equally well-known for a book on marriage. he said pole, i am very clear that the buckskin heroes of our nation are made of the least as good stuff but then if the rest of the peacekeeping gentry on the other side of the water but he said being good soldiers was not enough. nothing could save the united states while the british could outnumber them 10 to one. pole, no my friends, his population alone can't sustain our bacon. if this was not witty enough is a motto we waited on really thick saying if you truly love your country dear, mary and race
up soldiers and then laugh you may at england and france and spain. we made clear that population expansion offered the united states the firmest assurance of success over all rivals. by the time of medicines the people of the country had long been instructed that engaging in patriotic duty consisted first and foremost in romantic pleasure. the actual efficacy of those assumptions was about to be put to the task, so let's turn now from theory to practice and look at how war stories and love stories converged once the military contest actually got underway. throughout the spring and summer of 1812, before the first action of the war began, newspapers across the nation relayed early reports of the emotional status of the army as if this was the
best indicator of the wars prosthetics. various article stated for example quote that the truths are in fine spirits anxious to be let across to the enemy or quote that they were all in high spirits and we feel confident of success or quote, the men move on with great spirit and alacrity. a nation and its soldiers made emotional preparations only for victory. but the first confrontation with the british ended in utter debacle. an event general william holmes surrendered 5000 u.s. troops at detroit without hiring a single shot. the country was not only shocked by its defeat that they were certain that the emotional shortcomings must have been to blame. the question was, whose feelings had caused this national failure? surely neither the romantic patriots reading the newspapers
nor those ardent fighters filling out the rank-and-file of the troops could be to blame. one man was held responsible for the disaster, general william holmes. he face formal charges from quote treason against the united states to quote act in the neighborhood of detroit to quote neglect of duty and an officer like conduct. where really gets interesting is when the court specifies what they mean by it on officer like conduct. the formal charges against haul included the claim that through his negligence quote the general ardor of the army and sensibly evaded. according to the courts, maintaining emotional ardor in the fighting force was one of the generals most important duties. summing up the scene into troy, the court held that quote the northwestern army of the united
states being been then and been in there and find spirit and eager to meet the approaching army embattled had been thwarted by a general willing to enter into a shameful capitulation. in short, the court charged soldiers who at once it wants than end quote fine spirits, had had their ardor and sensibly evaded. up until the war of 1812, william hall had enjoyed his early reputation. is a celebrated veteran of the american revolution. he was a popular governor of the michigan territory but his inability to match the emotional tenor of the times forever tarnished his status and it almost cost him his life. general whole approach the capitol trial determined to try to keep the focus on the factual not the emotional. in defending his decision to surrender he laid out for the tribunal a clear account of the monumental organizational problems that he faced.
the nation had declared war with little to no prior preparation and hold faced severe shortages of men and matériel as a result. of course the way denied in taking what he viewed as a pragmatic action to save the life of his doomed troops. he also emphatically disputed claims that emotional primate had any useful effect on military preparedness. paul argued that the men quote though they were very ardent in patriotic and expression had had no service. neither men nor officers had ever been tried. he one on two say quote it is not extraordinary that i should have felt these for raw truths. he insisted that a traffic ardor was no substitute for armed effectiveness. no matter the emotional charges against him, he tried to gear
the trial back to a clear-sighted accounting of the true challenges facing a nation that he gone to war with only the most limited military infrastructure. critics of the war which were legion amongst the federalist agree completely with his position that men who claim to feel great ardor before they had experienced any military action for mistaking feeling for form. across new england from the first taste days of the worst at last kelvins clergymen and federalist war railed against the roeliff arduous passion in creating public support for the war. according to federalist allied members of the new england clergy menu join the fight out of feelings of ardor were acting out dilution, of dilution, responding like sheep to send. quote, i feel as an american love of the country of my nativity in sister pastor bailey
in a sermon he preached on july 23, 1812 but he argued quote war proceeds from the worst passions of the human heart and tends greatly to inflame them. he went on to quote and james for in the bible, depending the assembled parishioners quote from whence words inviting someone you. federalists did not dispute that there was a deep connection between the emotional and the marshall, but they insisted that for passions stemmed from sinful and as such deserve pronunciation, not celebration. now i want to be clear here, when doing burgers in this era thought about is a term they had quote carnal desire directly in mind. carnal desire. that is the definition for last
provided in the first ever american authors dictionary noaa webster's american dictionary which was published in 18 six. to be quote according to webster was to have quote irregular desires while to behave was to do something in a or lecturing manner. yet despite all of these imputations of deviancy webster also noted that to do something quote was to do it boldly with courage. so connections between passion and action between sexual arousal and courageous resolve for woven into the very vocabulary of american english in the era of 1812. ministers who were opposed to the passion found eager supporters amongst their parishioners along with these formal sermons that i had just
been talking about. the printers circulated lots of writing by ordinary people that took similar points of view. one antiwar poem publishes a broadside post are written by a man named william allen from newport rhode island rhymes quote, war, carnage, devastation, many fall and die in the sacred cage we read always from our proceed. from formal sermons to singsong -- war opponents accepted the association between violent actions and vile passions. the biblical basis for claims that wars resulted from lust was accepted as common knowledge across new england. but among war supporters the very same equation was made to yield a different solution. pro-war writers consistently asserted the existence of an essential connection between love and patriotism. intended by their very nature to stir the blood meant to motivate
action and also encourage people to pursue war as pleasure. a little ditty called on hobbies for example used the hobby horse to make explicit the equation between and soldiering, love and liberty and its lines are worth quoting at length. the song went like this. the hobby of soldiers in time of great wars, his breeches and battles with blood, wounds and scars but in peace you will observe that quite different. in peace the hobby of soldiers is ladies. the ladies sweet creatures guess they now and then get a stride of their hobbies to matches like a man with smiles beguile us with bees as we gallop, trot and amble even just as they please. the americans hobby has long been known, no king -- their states are united and let
it be said their hobbies liberty, peace and free trade. these verses help enunciate what americans of the early republic cast the sexual's together with the marshals the perils of war would be entirely eclipsed by the. such songs encourage men and women alike to imagine national employment has versatile enjoyment. the popularity of art ardent pitcher chisholm had importance and widespread political implications. now broadly speaking, these kinds of frisky war songs help to undercut the tedious moral calculation of federalist war. more specifically, the whole trials emphasis trial's emphasis on a motion transformed the general failure into something that was almost a boost for president madison. on november 4 of 1812 reflecting on the impasse of the surrender in detroit and at the height of his re-election effort madison
declared quote the nation spirit rises according to the pressure on it. the loss of an important post in the brave men surrendering with it inspired everywhere. they knew ardor and determination. days later of course he won the bid for re-election. when even the president relied first and foremost on ardor for the preservation of the nation's, he stood little chance of winning his case on the basis of recent analysis along. he partly or responsibility or the military failure in detroit. his inability to understand the importance of making an emotional appeal to the people in an age with print culture making public opinion matter as never before, it marked him as a man out of step with time. in the end none of protestations
to matter how factual kugels in the override the courts in the nation's embrace of the emotional. hole was handed a capital census by the court. now president madison ultimately decrease the general but only after the election he has one. claims that emotion mattered as much as accomplishment indeed the patriotic love actually made an important public contribution opened the way for inhabitants of the country to imagine that their own private people could aid in public effort and since so few people could claim any kind of immediate experience of the war, the kind that had guided his decision in detroit, romantic stories about the war in the ardor inspired could easily sway public opinion about the conflict. now, let's turn to general andrew jackson. general andrew jackson proved to be general william hull
antithesis in every way. if hull open the war by exposing the nation to defeat, jackson closed it in a blaze of glory that burned him lasting renown. and if hull claimed that order without action accounted for nothing jackson understood clearly that emotion could actually be both a successful product to exertion and effective -- give me one second here. so let's talk a little bit about andrew jackson's triumph at new orleans and the nation's ultimate embrace of the rhetoric of page craddock romance. most popular narrative for trail of jackson's actions came from the pen of his friend and biographer john keaton. john keaton set out cleverly to elevate jackson in ways that invited direct comparison to the fallen general william hull.
where a hull gave up more than 2000 prisoners jackson inflicted over 2000 casualties whereas subby the hero of the american revolution had per preferred a discipline professional army. jackson proved himself capable of winning with a ragtag. while he faced a capital trial for the way he had allowed for the men to become -- etan stressed that jackson had risen to greatness through quote the natural ardor of his temper. and that in every campaign, jackson was everywhere amongst his troops quote inspiring them with the ardor that animated his own boost him. when it came time to describe new orleans specifically, eaton provided an account of his speech that jackson made his men that made absolutely clear the link between passionate arousal and patriotic action.
eat-in claims that jackson delivered his address with a definite goal of inspiring his men to quote preserve their ardor and devotion to country. e. in -- look to your liberty, your property, the chastity of your life -- wives and daughters. jackson warned the men to beware that at their worst british soldiers could inflict rape on american women. now this practice was totally an authorized and was not commonplace but there was one isolated document incident of reddish atrocities in hampton virginia. and jackson drew on that offend in his speech. he urged quote take a retrospect of the conduct of the british army at hampton at every bosom with close with patriotism and virtue will be inspired. by directly invoking rape in an effort to prod them into action
jackson concludes the war of 1812 was as much a fight against british sexual tyranny as a struggle for any more positive definition of liberty. in fact, jackson and eaton together helped spread a wholly false story about english to pay but he in new orleans that did much to arouse americans to patriotism in the aftermath of the war. let's talk a little bit about the spread of the story. on february 16th, 1815, when the united states house of representatives met to devise the official congressional resolution of thanks to general jackson jared ingersoll a republican from philadelphia, took to the lauren explained quote, for the first time during this long arduous and trying session we can all feel alike. we are all of one mind, all hearts leap up to the embraces of the other.
why was ingersoll's heart leaping? this success have been known for a week or so but ingersoll related to a new and juicy state of gossip. he informed his colonies that were to just arrive that on the occasion of a failed invasion of new orleans british officers had offered quote duty and moody, in other words rape as a reward of victory end quote. quote and thus invited the british army native storms. bear discomfort shuras without example. never has there have been such disparity of law. this shocking story electrified the capitol. the supposed decision of the british to authorize extreme measures that only produce the most extraordinary -- now the story had no has no basis in fact. this is the point i investigated
at length of my book and i trace a rumor to the source. is quite an interesting story in itself but this myth of beauty and moody sends the message that american -- always wanted to get. from the beginning the war of 1812 and the thought of a contest over the meaning and validity of american claims to champion liberty in an expansionist age. wears british commentators like malthus were trying to seize the moral high ground by critiquing american slavery and western expansion. the story of beauty and moody helped mire the british and a muck of their own hypocrisy. as eaton explains in his account of the battle which is featured in the story prominently quote booty and beauty was the watch work of packing hams army in the battle. its criminality is increased from being the act of the people who hold themselves up to
surrounding nations and examples of everything that is correct improper. by trying to british with accusations of sexual depravity, americans would promote themselves as the last guardians of an essential element of virtue. conversely as eaton observed the british could no longer quote hold themselves up to a civilized standard for which american should aspire so besides making great gossip the watchword scandal polish the u.s. image is uniquely virtuous nation. preserving the most fundamental form of liberty, sexual consent from british abuse. each person who heeded the story of beauty and booty helped validate his sure shins that american men bopper when country for the romantic love they felt for wives and sweethearts and because of their determination to offer their women effective protection, in doing so u.s. soldiers enacted a love of
liberty that was entirely different from british tyranny. throughout 1815, cities and towns across the nation through festive dinners and dances for jackson and he attended many of these on a victory tour. men and women alike gathered to celebrate the feast and to repeat the page craddock myth of how general jackson say the women of the country from certain rape are going georgetown in december of 1815 for example, celebrants offered a toast urging quote the feelings of patriotism and beauty to the watchword of ute and booty.
fighting side-by-side to protect women of every hue from gang style attacks by british forces. contemporaries celebrated black contributions to jackson's victory and made explicit claims that the british had planned to target black and white women alike for us all. the song close by boasting that the british quote left us all that beauty and antiwar new englanders by saying, sent for as he boys and we will protect you ladies. the song was reprinted in broadside font across the country. the real beauty of the story of beauty and booty as it became to
be elaborated was it helps then from leading politicians to family patriarchs argue that mass rape as a marker of true tyranny. men could claim out right that freedom and love was both a root and the fruit of every other kind of liberty. as falling in love and beginning wedded life and patriotic duties, the right to procreate in turn defines the essence of freedom. in this context even those with no formal voice in government could be asked to lend their way to the national effort maximizing the number of people who could be mustered for the country and relaxing barriers to public participation finding with new ways to inspire loyalty to the land, encouraging reproduction. with the stress of war making every person's contribution counts, personal feelings and patriotic feats became connected in new ways. for his general william paul who
had claim that emotion without accomplishing and battered for nothing and your jackson proved him wrong. jackson stirring victory in new orleans occurred two full weeks after the united states and great britain had signed a peace treaty. the peace treaty as we have already said simply returned all matters to the status quo antebellum so in real terms jackson's remarkable feat mattered not at all. but in symbolic ones, the battle of new orleans would become a defining moment to the nation. this alchemy occurred through the power of patriotic popular horticulture. gossip about the british watchword scandal invoked just the kind of ardent tierney short of action to hasten the federalist party to cement national devotion to augment population and to motivate continuing territorial expansion. now this is not at all to say
that jackson made no real or lasting military contribution. among other things he used the wartime opportunity to rest 22 million acres of land in georgia. the point instead is you notice that it was love defended at new orleans, not death delivered at ft. jackson that turned andrew jackson enduring fame. so long as all inhabitants of the united states motivated by love for their families and loved for their countries supported the continued right of federalist particularly military encounters mattered less than the general promotion of dealings. historians have recently come to appreciate the one new way to look at the war of 1812 is was not only as the war, as the nation nations first declared war against a foreign enemy and decisive moment in the course of
ongoing indian conflict but also as the nation's first civil war. the war of 1812 had divided the nation into splintered political factions but it ultimately united us around a new vision of hatred to some. in his assessment of 1812 as an air of civil war is accurate, it must be significant that at the time it occurs, the war was successfully portrayed as such good fun. a4 was a frolic and patriotism was the natural result of insulting romantic passion. who could ever have predicted the devastation of the civil war? likening a award to an exercise in love hardly prepared anyone to undertake a steady assessment of the moral implication accompli. now the amazing thing is that the first major battle of the civil war, the battle of bull run, contemporaries completely by surprise. people actually write out --
to watch the battle as spectators and to cheer the action, and they were shocked to the core by the carnage that day. 5000 dead in a single day, more than all in the war of 1812. is a small wonder that a population reared on popular stories of war and pleasure had given so little thought to the real cost of armed conflict. in 1812, republicans discovered the unifying potential of making war supports the measure of love of country and of likening love of country to ordinary romantic affection. the nation would discover only too late for true right of false love. thank you. [applause] >> would anyone like to ask a question?
[inaudible] >> could you elaborate on that? >> sure. he asked what is the connection between jackson's victory and he said the end of the federalist? i should clarify the federalist party continues to exist well after the war but it's much more prominent at a local level. it really does fade from national prominence after the war and in great measure that is because of the ascendance of the men who contributed to the war effort. so we go straight from madison to monroe and into the so-called era of good feeling in which the
nation as a whole really does rally around the republican party to an unprecedented extent. >> what happened to the men that all surrendered? where they just disarmed and sent home? [inaudible] >> what the happened to the men? did they go home or did they go to -- [inaudible] most of them, there were furloughs and exchanges. hull was furloughed by the british because they thought it would be due to their their strategic advantage to do so. of course he came home to base a
court-martial. [inaudible] the question is what is the canadian perspective on the war of 1812 and how is atop there? i have no first-hand knowledge of this. i teach at nyu but i have been talking to canadian colleagues quite a bit on various panels and what i'm hearing is that in canadian, this is celebrated as the important war that made the canadian nation. it might might not have been a victory for either the united states or of ray britain, but canada regards it as a victory for them, that they turn back the americans efforts and after the war of 1812 up to now there's never been a cross-border conflict. >> i can confirm that. i am an american who spent a good part of my youth in canada and went to school there and yes it's very much a source of
canadian pride that the americans were defeated. >> thank you for that. >> we had detailed history of the revolution, the boston tea party and so on and when the american civil war, we knew almost everything about that, the battle of antietam and gettysburg and so one. and when i came here, in 1957, i knew a lot more about the revolution in the civil war than the colleagues here, students and academics. but we never heard a word about the war of 1812.
it was not mentioned and it was not in the history. any idea why that could be? >> there was quite a comprehensive education on the american revolution and the american civil war but almost nothing whatsoever on on the war of 1812 and why might that be? well the british i think did not tend to regard the american war of 1812 is it particularly -- effect at all. for the british this was just one small kind of sideshow in the midst of a global war. so for them, the war of 1812 as important as the one happening on the european continent and around the globe, not the one that is happening in north america. that might have something to do with what was taught in australia. ..
the british were winning. why would saddam did so abruptly? >> is started as soon as the war began. the british weren't in fighting this war. as i say, for most of it they had their hands tied with napoleon and even once he succeeded, they still financially and logistically were not interested in this
conflict. they never had a poetry teaching us. as the negotiations darted from the very beginning. one of the interesting notes about the declared war was british and council, which had to do with interfering with american shipping rates. the british actually rescinded the war and council before the united states declared war. but because the transatlantic communication, the u.s. didn't know it. so by the time the war officially broke out, the british had conceded one of the major points that the u.s. supposedly wanted action on. so the british were never committed to the corner, but when the u.s. how to respond. so if anything, probably the peace treaty with an abrupt. it was a very long time coming.
>> thank you very much. it's a very interest and talk. i'm wondering, the 50th anniversary of the war of 1812, 1862 at the beginning of the civil war, the way that the united states remember the war of 1812 was in any way be affected by the carnage that you pointed out. >> wasn't affected by the carnage i pointed out? now, just to clarify there wasn't much carnage in the war of 1812. >> the carnage of the civil war. >> does such a fascinating question. i think you just gave me a project. could be really interesting to go back and look. i have to think they may have been too preoccupied to do a lot of commemorating. in fact, 1812 commemorations were much more the 75th anniversary that the 50th. so that's what i said quickly,
but i think it's a really interesting question. >> thank you. [inaudible] >> a very, very small regular army at the outset of the war and it did change after the war. one of the lessons they learned was they gave up regular army. obviously during the american revolution there was always a fear at the time of independence because of the experience. people today don't realize in the 18th century, literally standing in your house. the british didn't build army barracks. when the station troops in boston, they were quarter and private peoples homes like it or not. so there is a real worry about the dangers of the army that
prevented the nation from learning the lessons of the revolution, which was that having a well-trained, disciplined and supplied fighting force is really crucial to being affect it. that was put in place by the end of the revolution. so in the summer of 1812, he had a very small number of regular troops, a few hundred compared to a few thousand militiamen, most of whom had never seen active service and were none too happy to be marched away from their homes hundreds of miles to the fort at detroit. the idea with militia was that it was a home card. you were supposed to literally defend your local community. people are rightfully worried that if they marched off to serve in faraway battlefields, they were leaving their own home and hearts and defend it. so this is really an untenable system that created quite a few
problems on the ground in 1812. they were all may finally surmounted at the battle of new orleans. recent history has actually shown that there were more regular troops and better ammunition at new orleans the popular myth had back in 1815. but in 1815, where people were celebrating with the idea that jackson had gone to battle with this total buckskin ragtag militia, the kentucky voice and they had finally succeeded in overcoming earlier militia problems. bs. -- yes. >> the war of 1812 finally got established there. i'm wondering if your theory unromantic passion had anything related to the navy because i was that sailors were more romantically passionate.
so are there any stories like that? >> thank you so much. what the sailors even more romantic and what about the u.s. navy and the war of 1812? thank you for the question. i have a whole chapter on sailors in the book. it sort of frustrating when you talk like this you have to decide which abstract. i didn't even mention the sailors from the pic you right. they are very much in the same pitcher and extremely are talking about. [inaudible] >> he was an officer in the american revolution quite successful. i can't name the individual ballot off the top of my head, but yeah.
>> if you have any further questions for professor eustace, you can ask them downstairs. [inaudible] [inaudible] >> thank you. that's lovely. thank you all for your questions. [applause] [inaudible conversations] >> this program insisted they did apply. the american revolution of washington crossing pennsylvania. for more information, visit the lar.org. >> mitch mentioned northeastern part of afghanistan. it cannot be more remote.
this valley is a cul-de-sac that goes nowhere and it's up near the. so getting up there is hard, flying helicopters is hard. the only way in was by boat or helicopter. trying to get their originally was tough. they went after honshu preferred. he was a hit commander, a terrorist group that has some association with al qaeda, some sort of truce at the television. these guys are nasty characters. their foreign fighters, chechnya guys that are really there to fight for afghanistan or their version of afghanistan. these guys are mercenaries. i'm what they were doing in the
area was recruiting while oppressing people to fight and he was rumored to have air missiles and was stuck selling guns and was also credited with a series of ambushes in the koran bow valley. so they decided they had to go up to the waukesha valley to take care of this network because he was able to export a love from his safe haven. but what they ran into was not only are they fighting the geography because it is such a hard race to get to come and they also some restrictions in afghanistan. i'm sure you've all seen the news, right click the night raids are highly regulated. who controlled the battle phase is highly regulated and takes a long time to get a mission plan. one thing i ran to us how to get
there, what helicopters could do and what, when and where they would be allowed to go. essentially what they came back with is the idea they were going to fly to the valley, linda valley, on the soldiers and playoff. the team initially wanted to fly to the top of the valley, top of the village and the astros down at the helicopters fly out. but because of restrictions, because with the pilots are comfortable doing, they ended up having to settle for this mission, which was to land in the valley and unload troops from which anyone who knows any basic to fight a pill is never a good idea. it's it sort of infantry one-to-one. if you take the high ground you want it. so what the commanders have to reconcile us what they were going to place this. was it riskier to fight to the top of the villager put them in
the ground and have the guys hopefully get up the hill before the bad guys found out they were there. so that's sort of what was left on the morning of the nation, with the booksellers. make it up in the morning to have to start this mission in the spring in the mountains of afghanistan. the weather has delayed it once or twice and they all have this sinking feeling that i don't know if this is a good idea and that feeling is one of the things that propels this boat and propels us because it is very rare that you get soldiers that have universal bad feelings like that and the candor to say hey, not only do we do that, but ticket up the chain said we don't want to do that mission, so that starts the book and also starts them on this path that ultimately gets them in an ambush. >> and that's pretty critical with kevin just mentioned in the book. you don't usually get soldiers to speak out. and there is kathleen, walton
who basically neo, just like other members knew that there were flaws in this plan. you don't find a pill and you had the limit doesn't surprise. so he took his concerns to his commander and his commanders -- it was real important to do this mission because it was a really bad guy. he took finance, has meant by this gem smuggling operation. in fact, what they later found out that the fbi and cia were some of those have even showed up in shame shops in arizona. so you will find these gems to finance this whole campaign. again gordon back to this was the valley, the captain on the
two new tactic with the plan was flawed. but even though the news that it was flawed, and that there was incredible danger and they would have to climb to the top of the mountain to get to this compound with a new it was surrounded by some of that, you know, some of the best mercenary so to speak at what really trained mercenaries were fighting for that 10 years. they still went and they still went to carry out this mission. i think you can describe a little bit of what happened when they went. >> okay, so they take off on the border of jalalabad and fly into this valley. there is some concern at this point obviously. there's concerned about the welfare comment there's a certain when that they could get in before the cloud cover can. they had to work quickly as well